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The Face of Kings

Thu 25 Apr18H00


la face des rois
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Ever since the French king Jean II le Bon, heads of state have sought by every means possible to fix their features on canvas. By commissioning renowned artists, they left posterity their best profile, then their face - often idealized. Unlike their fellow sculptors and medal engravers, however, painters were unable to follow in the footsteps of their ancient predecessors. And with good reason: the canvas only became a medium of representation, on a creative scale (and with the obvious exception of cave or a fresco paintings), belatedly. As a result, the references are very different from those used for marble busts or coins. The Bourbon dynasty laid down the first rules for official painting, in a typology never denied after them. Louis XIV himself, with his grand portrait in coronation regalia by Hyacinthe Rigaud, brought together all the regalia and symbols of power around his person. The revolutionary episode failed to surpass the exercise. Once in power, Napoleon presented himself as a worthy successor to previous sovereigns, under the brushes of Gérard, Lefèvre, Girodet, Ingres, Appiani and, of course, David. In 1812, the latter offered a less solemn portrait of the Emperor, in his Tuileries study, wearing the uniform of a Guard colonel and surrounded by books. No longer sacred, he was a modern man whose actions were at the service of all. After him, from Napoleon III (by Winterhalter) to our most recent photographed presidents, all appear in civilian dress, either in front of a library or in a less formal setting. In this sense, as in others, republican France, heir to kings and emperors, has managed to combine tradition and innovation. David Chanteranne Historian and journalist, Director of Rueil-Malmaison Heritage Sites

Terms of sale

CONDITIONS OF SALE : As part of our auction activities, our auction house collects personal data concerning the seller and the buyer. The latter therefore have the right to access, rectify and object to their personal data by contacting our auction house directly. Our OVV may use this personal data to meet its legal obligations, and, unless the persons concerned object, for the purposes of carrying out its activity (in particular, sales and marketing operations). Such data may also be communicated to the competent authorities where required by law. The general terms and conditions of sale and all related matters are governed solely by French law. Purchasers or their agents agree that any legal action shall fall within the exclusive jurisdiction of the French courts (Paris). The various provisions of the general terms and conditions of sale are independent of each other. The nullity of one of these provisions does not affect the applicability of the others. Participation in the present auction implies that all buyers or their representatives accept and adhere to all the conditions set out below. The sale is made in cash (Art. 1650 of the French Civil Code) and conducted in euros. A currency conversion system may be set up at the time of the sale. The counter-values in foreign currencies of bids placed in the auction room in euros are provided for information only. DEFINITIONS AND GUARANTEES The information given in the catalog is drawn up by MILLON and the independent experts mentioned in the catalog, subject to the rectifications, notifications and declarations announced at the time of presentation of the lot and recorded in the minutes of the sale. Dimensions, colors of reproductions and information on the condition of the object are given for information only. All indications of any incident, accident, restoration or conservatory measure affecting a lot are communicated in order to facilitate its inspection by the potential buyer, and remain subject to the latter's entire appreciation. This means that all lots are sold in the condition they are in at the time of auction, with all possible defects and imperfections. No claims will be accepted once the lots have been sold, as a prior exhibition will have enabled buyers to examine the works presented. For lots with a low estimate in excess of 2,000 euros, a condition report on the state of conservation of the lots will be provided free of charge on request. The information contained therein is provided for information purposes only. MILLON and its experts cannot be held liable in any way whatsoever. In the event of a dispute at the time of the auction, i.e. if it is established that two or more bidders have simultaneously made an equivalent bid, either aloud or by sign, and claim the lot at the same time after the word "adjugé" has been pronounced, the said lot will be reoffered for sale at the price proposed by the bidders, and all members of the public present will be admitted to bid again. - In accordance with article L321-17 of the French Commercial Code, civil liability claims arising from voluntary sales are subject to a five-year statute of limitations from the date of the auction. - Only French law is applicable to this sale. Only French courts are competent to hear any dispute relating to the present sale. Lots marked with " ° " include elephant ivory which is free to sell as it predates 3/03/1947. Should the buyer wish to export the item outside the EU, he must obtain an export permit in his name from the DRIEE. This is at the buyer's expense. Lots preceded by a "J" will be subject to a judicial report at the legal buyer's expense of 12% ex VAT, i.e. 14.40% inc VAT. CHARTE DE L'ENCHERICUR et de L'ENCHERICHE : By participating in public auctions at MILLON, bidders, whatever their nationality, undertake to comply with article 3 nonies of European Council regulation 2022/428 of March 15, 2022 and its annex XVIII, namely : A ban on the sale and direct or indirect transfer to Russia of works of art, antiques and collectors' items. This ban also applies to cars, wines and spirits, leather goods, clothing and textiles, precious stones, pearls and jewelry, coins and silverware, porcelain, glass and crystal, watches and musical instruments, as well as electronic and electrical goods. The unit value thresholds applied to this ban are as follows: Works of art, collectors' items and luxury goods: from €300 Land vehicles: from €50,000 (€5,000 for two-wheelers) Electronic items for domestic use: from €750 Electronic sound and image recording devices: from €1,000 By participating in public auctions at MILLON, bidders accept responsibility for any failure to comply with the above obligations. For further information, please contact MILLON at or +33 (0)1 48 00 99 44. PURCHASE ORDERS AND TELEPHONE AUCTIONS MILLON does not charge for taking and executing telephone bidding orders. MILLON will do its best to execute bids received in writing up to 2 hours before the sale. MILLON shall not be held liable for any failure to execute a bid order or for any error or omission in the execution of such orders. Furthermore, MILLON shall not be held liable for any interruption, non-establishment or delay in the telephone connection for telephone auctions. Although MILLON is prepared to accept telephone orders up to the end of the exhibition hours at the latest, it accepts no liability for non-fulfilment due to errors or omissions in connection with telephone orders. Please note that telephone conversations during telephone auctions at Hôtel Drouot may be recorded. Irrevocable offer to purchase : Any bidder may send the auction house an irrevocable bid for the purchase of a lot listed in the sales catalog in order to give the auction house a firm, definitive, irrevocable and unconditional instruction to bid on his behalf up to a certain sum (regardless of the amount of any other bids). In this context, it may be agreed that the Bidder will receive an indemnity calculated either on the hammer price, or corresponding to a lump sum. If an irrevocable bid for a lot is received by the Auction House before the sale, it will be mentioned in the sale catalog that the lot is the subject of an irrevocable bid. If an irrevocable offer to purchase is received after the sale catalog has been printed, the auction house will announce in the auction room, when the lot is put up for auction, that the lot is the subject of an irrevocable bid. Any third party advising you on the purchase of a lot subject to an irrevocable bid is required to disclose to you the existence of any financial interest in the lot. If a third party advises you on the purchase of a lot subject to an irrevocable offer to purchase, you must require them to disclose whether or not they have a financial interest in the lot. Any person preparing to bid on the lot subject to an irrevocable offer to purchase, who has a direct or indirect, permanent or occasional community of interest with the Author of the Offer, and who has agreed with the latter on a financial arrangement likely to hinder the bidding, is liable to criminal sanction in accordance with the provisions of article 313-6 of the French Penal Code, which states that: "The act, in a public auction, by gifts, promises, agreements or any other fraudulent means, of excluding a bidder or limiting bids or tenders, is punishable by six months' imprisonment and a fine of 22,500 euros. Accepting such gifts or promises is punishable by the same penalties. The same penalties apply to 1° The act, in a public auction, of obstructing or disturbing the freedom of bids or tenders, by violence, assault or threats; 2° Proceeding with or participating in an auction after a public auction, without the assistance of the competent ministerial officer or sworn goods broker, or a declared operator of voluntary sales of furniture by public auction. Any attempt to commit an offence under this article shall be subject to the same penalties. DEPOSIT MILLON reserves the right to request a deposit from bidders when they register. This deposit will be automatically withdrawn in the absence of payment by the successful bidder within 15 days of the sale (invoice date). AUCTIONS VIA DIGITAL PLATFORMS MILLON cannot be held responsible for the interruption of a Live service during a sale or for any other malfunction that may prevent a buyer from bidding via a technical platform offering the Live service. The interruption of a Live auction service during a sale does not necessarily justify the auctioneer stopping the sale. In the event of bids being placed between the hammer blow and the adjudication (pronouncement of the word "adjugé" for live auctions), the auctioneer will resume the bidding. In the case of live auctions, i.e. simultaneously in the auction room and online, priority will be given to the bid placed in the auction room in the event of simultaneous bids. AUCTION LEVELS Bidding increments are left to the discretion of the auctioneer in charge of the sale. If the amount of the bids proposed - either physically, by telephone, by firm purchase order, live or by "secret order" deposited on partner relay platforms - is deemed insufficient, inconsistent with the amount of the previous bid or likely to disrupt the proper conduct, fairness and pace of the sale, the auctioneer may decide not to take them into account. COSTS TO BE BORNE BY THE BUYER The buyer shall pay MILLON, in addition to the hammer price per lot, a degressive auction commission per tranche of : - 25% excl. tax, i.e. 30% incl. tax * Except for : - Less than €2,500: 27.5% excl. tax (33% inc. VAT *) Then degressive as follows: - 20.83% excl. tax (i.e. 25% inc. VAT *) from €500,001 to €1,500,000 - 16.66% excl. tax (i.e. 20% inc. VAT *) above €1,500,001 *VAT rate in force: 20% Total price = hammer price + auction commission In addition : - for lots purchased via the platform, the selling costs payable by the buyer are increased by 3% excluding VAT of the hammer price (see CGV of the Interencheres platform). - for lots purchased via the platform, the buyer is charged an additional selling fee of 1.5% (excl. VAT) of the hammer price (see platform GTC). - for lots purchased via the platform, the buyer will be charged an additional 3% of the hammer price before tax (see platform's General Terms and Conditions of Sale). COLLECTION, INSURANCE, STORAGE AND TRANSPORT MILLON will only hand over the lots sold to the buyer once the total price has been received. It is the purchaser's responsibility to insure the lots as soon as they are sold, since from that moment on, the risks of loss, theft, damage or other are the purchaser's sole responsibility. MILLON declines all responsibility for the damage itself or for the buyer's failure to insure against such damage. Buyers are advised to remove their lots promptly. No compensation will be payable in particular for damage to frames and glass covering the lots. Plinths are for display purposes only and do not form an integral part of the work. DEFERRED COLLECTION AND STORAGE : MILLON will provide free storage for 30 days after the sale. After this period, storage and transfer costs from our premises to our storage facility at 116 bd Louis Armand - 93330 Neuilly sur Marne, will be invoiced at the rate of : - 10 € excl. tax / Lot / completed week for a volume greater than 1 M3 - 7 € excl. tax / lot / completed week for volumes of less than 1 M3 - 5 excl. tax / lot / past week for "hand-held" storage. These conditions and charges do not apply to lots deposited in the Hôtel Drouot warehouse, the cost of which depends on the Hôtel Drouot itself (see Sales and storage at Drouot). Important reminder: In the case of "bargain" sales held in our storage facilities, free storage will not exceed 15 days. Concerning sales in Salle VV, (3 rue Rossini 75009 PARIS): We would like to inform our customers that furniture, carpets and bulky items will be transferred to our storage facility in Neuilly sur Marne (address above) and will be made available to buyers after full payment of the consignment note. TRANSFER REQUESTS FOR REMOVAL FROM AFTER-SALES STORAGE : All requests to transfer lots between our Paris addresses and/or our storage facility will be invoiced in addition to the initial purchase slip: - 15 € excl. tax per small lot not exceeding 5 items. - 40 € excl. tax per purchase order not exceeding 5 items and up to 1 M3. For larger volumes, transfer requests can only be made after acceptance of a quotation. Furniture is excluded from the so-called "shuttle transferable" lots, but may be subject to delivery estimates. If the transferred lots are not claimed more than 7 days after their registration in the destination premises, they will be returned to our storage facility without possibility of reimbursement, and the free storage periods will resume from the day of the sale. Long-term storage can be negotiated with our teams ( FOR MORE INFORMATION: Stéphane BOUSQUET 116, Bd Louis Armand, 93330 Neuilly-sur-Marne No delivery or collection of lots will be accepted without full payment of storage and delivery charges. SALES AND STORAGE AT HOTEL DROUOT For sales taking place at the Hôtel Drouot, furniture, carpets and bulky or fragile items will be stored in the Magasinage department of the Hôtel Drouot. Access is via 6bis rue Rossini - 75009 Paris and is open Monday to Saturday from 9am to 10am and from 1pm to 6pm. Hôtel Drouot's shopping service is independent of MILLON. This service is subject to a fee, which is payable by the purchaser (information: TEMPORARY IMPORTATION Purchasers of lots marked with an asterisk (*) must pay import VAT (5.5% of the hammer price, 20% for jewelry and watches, automobiles, wines and spirits, and multiples) in addition to the sale price. LEAVING FRENCH TERRITORY The departure of a lot from France may be subject to administrative authorization. Obtaining this document is the sole responsibility of the buyer of the lot in question. Delay or refusal by the authorities to issue exit documents will not justify cancellation of the sale, delay in payment or rescission. If our company is requested by the purchaser or his representative to make these exit requests, all costs incurred will be at the purchaser's expense. This operation will only be a service rendered by MILLON. Export formalities (certificate applications for cultural objects, export licenses) are the responsibility of the purchaser and may require a delay of 2 to 3 months. EXPORT AFTER THE SALE VAT collected as part of the selling costs, or on the temporary importation of the lot, may be reimbursed to the buyer within the legal deadlines, on presentation of documents justifying the export of the lot purchased. PRE-EMPTION BY THE FRENCH STATE In certain cases defined by law, the French State has the right to pre-empt works sold at public auction. In such cases, the French State takes the place of the last bidder, provided that the declaration of pre-emption made by the State's representative in the auction room is confirmed within fifteen days of the sale. MILLON cannot be held responsible for any pre-emptive decisions made by the French State. RESPONSIBILITY OF BIDDERS By bidding on a lot by any of the means of transmission proposed by MILLON, bidders assume personal responsibility for paying the hammer price of the lot, plus the hammer commission and any duties or taxes due. Bidders are deemed to be acting in their own name and for their own account, unless otherwise agreed in writing with MILLON prior to the sale. Subject to the decision of the authorized auctioneer and provided that the final bid is greater than or equal to the reserve price, the last bidder will become the buyer, and the blow of the hammer and the pronouncement of the word "adjugé" will materialize the acceptance of the last bid and the formation of the sales contract between the seller and the buyer. The lots sold are the sole responsibility of the buyer. In the event of a dispute by a third party, MILLON may hold the bidder solely responsible for the bid in question and its settlement. PAYMENT OF THE TOTAL PRICE MILLON specifies and reminds you that the sale by public auction is for cash and that the successful bidder must immediately pay the full price of his purchase, regardless of whether he wishes to remove his lot from French territory (see "Removal from French territory"). Payment may be made as follows: - in cash up to a limit of €1,000 for French residents / €15,000 for private individuals whose tax domicile is abroad (on presentation of proof); - by bank or postal cheque, subject to presentation of valid proof of identity (cheques will not be issued until twenty days after payment. Foreign cheques are not accepted); - by Visa or Master Card ; - online payment: ; - by bank transfer in euros to the following address: DOMICILIATION: NEUFLIZE OBC 3, avenue Hoche - 75008 Paris IBAN FR76 3078 8009 0002 0609 7000 469 BIC NSMBFRPPXXX For bidders who have placed bids via the Interenchè platform, MILLON will debit the total price of the bid directly from this site within 48 hours of the end of the sale. LATE PAYMENT After 30 days (invoice date), any late payment will incur late payment penalties equal to 3 times the legal interest rate, as well as a fixed indemnity for collection costs of 40 euros. MILLON subscribes to the TEMIS service, which enables it to consult and update the File of restrictions on access to auction sales ("TEMIS File"), operated by Commissaires-Priseurs Multimédia (CPM), S.A., whose registered office is located at 37 rue de Châteaudun, 75009 Paris, France (RCS Paris 437 868 425). All auction slips which remain unpaid to MILLON or which are subject to late payment are liable to be registered in the TEMIS file. For further information, please consult the TEMIS data protection policy: PAYMENT DEFAULT In the event of non-payment, if the sale is cancelled or the work is resold on reiteration of the bids under the conditions of article L321-14 of the French Commercial Code, the defaulting buyer shall pay MILLON a fixed indemnity corresponding to (i) the amount of the buyer's costs and (ii) €40 in collection costs, as compensation for the loss suffered, without prejudice to any additional damages due to the seller. MILLON also reserves the right to offset any sums owed by the defaulting buyer or to cash any deposit cheques. SHIPMENT OF PURCHASES We inform our customers that MILLON does not take responsibility for shipping goods after sales. For all shipment requests, MILLON recommends using its partner carrier (THE PACKENGERS - or any other carrier of the customer's choice. In any case, MILLON is not responsible for the shipment, handling and storage of the lot during transport. If MILLON agrees to handle the shipment of an item on an exceptional basis, its liability cannot be called into question in the event of loss, theft or accidents, which remain the responsibility of the buyer. In addition, this shipment will only be carried out on receipt of a letter discharging MILLON of its responsibility in the future of the item shipped, and will be the exclusive financial responsibility of the buyer. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS The sale of a lot does not imply the transfer of reproduction or representation rights of which it may constitute the material support.

Our auctioneer

Alexandre MILLON

Alexandre MILLON


Our sales manager




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